Yamaha Ups The Ante With New YZF-R1 and R1M

. By Lance Thruxton

By Jon Row and Bikeland staff
Selected photos by Jon Stillman

Yamaha unleashed the highly anticipated 2015 YZF R1 this week and the tuning fork folks pulled no punches about the use of Moto GP technology in the design in their flagship Superbike. A road bike built for racing and for the M version, in their words: “A production Superbike that’s as close as you can get to a street-legal M1 MotoGP bike, effectively blurring the line between the two.”

Moto GP technology is flowing to production machines from several companies more strongly now. Sales potential is obvious and there are other incentives too. Increasingly restrictive rules in the more “production based” racing series like World Superbike. WSB’s upcoming curtailment of exotic technology and mods is designed to reduce costs which will thus reward production machines having more advanced technology. Yamaha doesn’t currently race WSB but they have in the past and could return at some point. In the U.S. and other countries, Superbike racing has been a mainstay marketing tool for them and others. A few hours before the R1 covers came off in Los Angeles, Ducati CEO Claudio Domencali, at the EICMA show in Milan (Link here) summed up introduction of his company’s stunning new 205 horsepower Panigale stating that thanks to 2015 WSB rule changes “Any manufacturer who does not have a super strong production motorcycle next year will have to withdraw from WSB racing.”

Despite being held at bay in Moto GP by Honda and maestro Marquez the past two seasons, Yamaha’s Moto GP technology on the 2015 R1 is impressive. Six-axis inertial “3D” control electronics are a milestone for the company and the industry. The R1M with its electronic suspension control, GPS telemetry and data logging Y-TRAC system is even more so. R1M owners will be able to use tablets and smart phones to enter the techno-sophistication world previously known only to factory race teams.

Yamaha reps would not reveal any power figures however seasoned observers expect close to 200 HP. The dyno of course will tell all in February or March when releases are anticipated but judging from the high-pitched exhaust shriek we experienced up close and personal, there should be plenty on tap. A few ponies may not be critical though since the engine specs and components are obviously ready to capitalize on race-legal power up mods.

Fit and finish on the R1 preproduction samples Bikeland viewed were excellent. The “M”s polished aluminum alloy tank was particularly enticing. Yamaha noted Josh Hayes (and Rossi’s) assistance in the R1 development. No surprise as Yamaha USA is clearly intent on Hayes or Herrin extending the five-year AMA Superbike Championship run as new organizers likely morph that series towards WSB rules.

Yamaha will only build 500 of the $21,990 “M”s and it’s pretty clear who many of the customers will be. Although attractively priced, the $16,490 R1 base model will have strong competition from the other 2015 Superbikes seen so far and perhaps more to come. The R1s are designed to compete in the showroom via the racetrack in a new way. One thing for sure is certain; customers are going to enjoy this technology and horsepower war.


Yamaha says:

When the Yamaha YZF-R1 debuted in 1998, it was called a “game-changer.” The term “R1” entered the motorcycle lexicon and became synonymous with the pinnacle of Superbike performance and racing success.

For 2015, Yamaha introduces two all-new R1 models that promise to make as big of an impact in sportbike and road racing circles as the original R1 did nearly two decades ago. The 2015 R1 and limited-edition R1M are both highly advanced, distinctive, and paradigm-shifting motorcycles.

2015 YZF-R1: THE SUPREME EXPRESSION OF “SUPERBIKE”
The all-new 2015 R1 was conceived, designed, and built to showcase Yamaha’s engineering and performance prowess, and the advanced features of the bike are destined to make it not only a success on the racetrack, but also a superior performer on the street.

A New Dimension In Controllability And Performance
Featuring the first six-axis Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) ever featured on a street-going motorcycle, the 2015 R1 represents the dawn of a new digital era where all riders can experience total 3D controllability.

Fully equipped with banking-sensitive Traction Control, as well as Slide Control, Anti-Wheelie Control, Quickshifter, Launch Control, ABS, a Unified Braking System, and much more, the all-new R1 gives street riders, track day participants, and full-on racers an unmatched and unprecedented level of rider-adaptive performance. For the first time, all riders have the opportunity to experience MotoGP-winning YZR-M1 technology previously only available to Yamaha Factory Riders Valentino Rossi and Jorge Lorenzo.

An Engine Designed To Fully Fuel Your Superbike Passion
The 2015 R1 features a completely new, lightweight and compact, crossplane-concept, inline-four-cylinder, 998cc engine that delivers high horsepower and a strong pulse of linear torque for outstanding performance.

The R1 has twin injectors fueling each cylinder. A bi-directional spray in the lower injectors directs fuel toward the back of the intake valves to maximize the number of droplets that go directly into the combustion chamber and, at high RPMs, the secondary injectors add a boost in fuel delivery.

Among the many innovative, breakthrough features on the new R1 engine are titanium fracture-split connecting rods, which are an industry first for a production motorcycle. The specific titanium alloy used to manufacture the new con rods is around 60% lighter than steel, and this major reduction in weight gives the new R1 engine an extremely responsive and potent character at high rpm.

And, speaking of titanium, the 2015 R1 is equipped with a newly designed exhaust system manufactured mainly from titanium. Plus, a compact, midship muffler contributes towards the mass centralization that is a key feature on the R1.

A Chassis And Bodywork Sharply Focused On Winning
A brand-new Deltabox aluminum frame was designed and developed for the 2015 R1. The engine is incorporated as a fully stressed member and is mounted rigidly to the frame at four points. Also, an upward-truss-type aluminum swingarm create an immensely strong and lightweight structure.

The new short-wheelbase chassis benefits from weight-reducing features such as a magnesium subframe and--another first on a production motorcycle--magnesium wheels. Also, an aluminum fuel tank is 3.5 pounds lighter than if it were made from steel.

The M1-inspired fairing on the new R1 is equipped with LED headlights and position lights, which not only provide weight savings but also deliver high luminosity and style. Two small-diameter LED headlights are positioned on either side of the central air intake and, because of their compact design, they appear to be virtually hidden in the new fairing.

In addition, twin-LED linear position lights located within the front fairing give the R1 a truly unique frontal expression. And, for added style, when the ignition is turned off, the LED position lights gradually lose their luminosity as if the bike is gently going to sleep.

The all-new 2015 YZF-R1 will be available in three distinctive color options--Team Yamaha Blue/Matte Silver, Rapid Red/Pearl White, and Raven--and will retail for $16,490, with bikes available in dealerships beginning in late February 2015.

2015 YZF-R1M: THE CLOSEST YOU CAN GET TO A PRODUCTION YZR-M1
From the beginning, Yamaha has always faithfully adhered to the mantra, “We Race. You Win.” And the YZF-R1M is arguably the truest and most direct representation of that belief. As much as the 2015 R1 bristles with performance, style, and race-bred substance, the R1M actually kicks things up yet another notch, giving you a production Superbike that’s as close as you can get to a street-legal M1 MotoGP bike, effectively blurring the line between the two.

The R1M showcases an additional range of highly sophisticated components--including Öhlins Electronic Racing Suspension (ERS), carbon fiber bodywork (upper fairing, side fairings, and front fender), and a Communication Control Unit (CCU) with GPS that enables the rider to capture ride data (including GPS tracking) and then download it via WiFi to the Yamaha Y-trac smartphone and tablet app. Once the data is downloaded, the rider can analyze it overlaid with the track map, make setting changes, and upload those changes back to the R1M.

The R1M's specially developed tires are the result of a joint collaboration between Yamaha and Bridgestone. The 200/55-ZR17 rear tire and 120/70-ZR17 front tire use a special compound formulated to optimize the performance characteristics of the R1 and allow the rider to experience outstanding levels of traction with extreme lean angles.

Additional R1M features include a clear-coated aluminum fuel tank, a highly polished aluminum swingarm, gold-colored front radial-mount calipers, specially finished gold inner tubes on the 43mm Öhlins front forks, and a special R1M badge on the airbox cover.

After riding this Superbike taken to the Mth degree, four-time AMA Pro Superbike Champion Josh Hayes said, “If you’ve ever ridden an R1--or any literbike for that matter--chances are, you’ve got a secret wish to swing your leg over a full-on, race-ready Superbike. Well, with the R1M, now you can.

“The R1M is as close to race-ready as I’ve ever seen in a production bike. It’s so far ahead of the competition that it’s tough to even make comparisons. It’s really in a league of its own, and I can’t wait to race it next year in the new MotoAmerica series.”

Since the R1M is intended for professional racers and highly experienced riders who demand the ultimate in track performance, less than 500 of the limited-edition model will be available in the U.S. beginning in late February 2015. Offered in a first-of-its-kind Carbon Fiber/Liquid Metal color scheme, the R1M will carry a suggested retail price of $21,990.



Yamaha YZF-R1



R1 Features:

ENGINE:
The all-new 998cc in-line 4-cylinder, crossplane crankshaft engine features titanium fracture-split connecting rods, which are an industry first for a production motorcycle. The specific titanium alloy used to manufacture the new connecting rods is around 60% lighter than steel, and this major reduction in weight gives the new R1 engine a responsive and potent character at high rpm. This all-new engine delivers extremely high horsepower and a strong pulse of linear torque.

A new 6-speed transmission has also been adopted to match the new engine. The transmission “stacks” the input/output shafts to centralize mass and to keep the overall engine size shorter front to back, which optimizes engine placement in the frame for outstanding weight balance. The new transmission brings out more of the low- to mid-speed torque and excellent response characteristics while reducing the need for frequent shifts.

Lightweight magnesium engine covers are used to further reduce weight while rocker-arm valve actuation allows for larger valve lift further boosting horsepower.

ELECTRONICS PACKAGE:
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is the first on production motorcycle featuring six axis of measurement: It consists of a gyro sensor that measures pitch, roll, and yaw, as well as an accelerometer, or G-sensor, that measures acceleration in the fore-aft, up-down, and right-left directions...all at a rate of 125 calculations per second. The IMU communicates with the Yamaha Ride Control (YRC) Yamaha’s most advanced electronics package ever offered on a production motorcycle. Includes Power Delivery Mode, Traction Control System,
Slide Control System, Lift Control System, Launch Control System and Quick Shift System. All these systems are adjustable and can be saved within four presets.

Power Delivery Mode (PWR), similar to the earlier “D-Mode” system, lets the rider choose from four settings of throttle-valve opening rate in relation to the degree of throttle-grip opening to best match their riding conditions.

Variable Traction Control System (TCS) with lean angle calculating the differential in front to rear wheel speed as well as the lean angle, it helps prevent rear wheel spin when exiting corners. As lean angle increases, so does the amount of control...with ten separate settings (off and 1-9) enabling the rider to dial in the exact level of control needed.

Slide Control System (SCS), the first of its kind on a production motorcycle, comes directly from the YZR-M1. It works in tandem with the IMU, where, if a slide is detected while accelerating during hard leaning conditions, the ECU will step in and control engine power to reduce the slide. This too can be adjusted by the rider. Four settings (1-3 and off).

Lift Control System (LIF) IMU detects the front to rear pitch rate and the ECU controls engine power to reduce the front wheel lift during acceleration. Four settings (1-3 and off). Launch Control System (LCS) limits engine rpms to 10,000 wide open throttle. It maintains optimum engine output in conjunction with input from the TCS and LIF systems to maximize acceleration from a standing start.. Three setting levels regulate the effect (1-2 and off).

Quick Shift System (QSS) cuts engine output so riders can up-shift without using the clutch and closing the throttle, for quicker lap times, also with three variable settings (1-2 and off).

Assist and slipper clutch is used to give the rider more confident downshifts when entering corners aggressively.

The R1 uses YCC-T ® (Yamaha Chip Controlled Throttle), fly-by-wire technology providing optimum power delivery.. YCC-I ® is Yamaha Chip Controlled Intake which is a variable intake system that broadens the spread of power in both low and high rpm.

CHASSIS/SUSPENSION:
All-new Aluminum Deltabox ® frame and magnesium subframe contribute to a light weight and compact chassis design. The aluminum frame is both strong and flexible, with rigid engine mounts, making the engine a stressed member of the frame for optimal rigidity balance and great cornering performance on the race track.

The R1 features an all-new inverted KYB ® front fork with 43mm inner tubes and a 4.7 inch stroke with full adjustability, for incredible front end feel on the track.

The fully adjustable KYB ® shock has a new rear bottom link pivot position that is optimally placed to provide exceptional handling, and excellent transmission of engine torque to the track surface.

The wheelbase is 10mm shorter than the previous R1 adding to cornering performance, however the ratio of swing arm length to wheelbase is 40.5%, the same as the current R1 for excellent linear stability. Also featured is an aluminum 4.5 gallon fuel tank, weighing in at a full 3.5 pounds less than a comparable steel tank.

The track developed and tested racing ABS and Unified Braking System provide maximum braking performance. UBS inhibits unwanted rear end motion during braking by activating the rear brake when the front brake is applied, with force distribution based on the bike’s attitude and lean angle.

All-new Nissin 4-piston radial mounted front calipers ride on big 320mm rotors for excellent stopping power.

The 2015 R1 is equipped with a newly designed exhaust system manufactured mainly from titanium. Plus, a compact, midship muffler contributes towards the mass centralization that is a key feature on the R1.

10-spoke cast magnesium wheels that reduce rotational mass by 1.9 pounds over the previous model reduces unsprung weight for quick direction changes and improved handling.

The R1 features a thin-film transistor LCD meter, with brilliant color for precise monitoring of all vehicle systems, including front brake pressure and fore/aft G-force making it easier than ever to take the bike to its limits. It features a “street mode” and a “race mode” that focuses on information that’s more important on the track, such as YRC settings, a zoomed in view of the tachometer in the upper rpm range, a lap timer with best lap and last lap feature, gear position indicator and speed, just to name a few.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES:
All-new dynamic “M1” inspired styling that creates a more compact profile with improved aerodynamics.

All-new LED headlights are both lightweight and compact allowing for a more streamlined design and layout of the front face.

All-new LED front turn signals are integrated into the mirrors for improved aerodynamics.

Available as an option is the Yamaha-exclusive Communication Control Unit. The CCU allows riders to communicate with the vehicle via Wi-Fi through Yamaha’s exclusive Y-TRAC smartphone and tablet app. The system is comprised of the CCU and GPS antenna, running data can be recorded via a data logger, with course mapping and automatic lap timing managed by GPS. This data can then be wirelessly downloaded to the Android or Apple iOS app where it can be analyzed. Changes to settings can then be made via the Yamaha “YRC” app to later upload to the R1.


R1 Specs:

Model: YZFR1B/C, YZFR1FL/C, YZFR1FR/C
Engine Type: 998cc, liquid-cooled inline 4 cylinder DOHC 16 valves
Bore x Stroke: 79.00 x 50.9mm
Compression Ratio: 13.0:1
Fuel Delivery: Fuel Injection with YCC-T and YCC-I
Ignition: TCI: Transistor Controlled Ignition
Transmission: 6-speed multi-plate slipper clutch
Final Drive: Chain
Suspension / Front: 43mm KYB ® inverted fork; fully adjustable; 4.7-in travel
Suspension / Rear: KYB ® Single shock w/piggyback reservoir, 4-way adjustable; 4.7- in travel
Brakes / Front: Dual 320mm hydraulic disc; 4-piston caliper, UBS ABS
Brakes / Rear: 220mm disc; UBS ABS
Tires / Front: 120/70ZR17M/C
Tires / Rear: 190/55ZR17M/C
L x W x H: 80.9 x 27.2 x 45.3 in
Seat Height: 33.7 in
Ground Clearance: 5.1 in
Wheelbase: 55.3 in
Rake (Caster Angle): 24°
Trail: 4.0
Fuel Capacity: 4.5 gal
Fuel Economy*: N/A
Wet Weight**: 439 lb/ CAL 441 lb
Color: Team Yamaha Blue/White; Rapid Red/Pearl White; Raven

* Fuel economy estimates are based on US EPA exhaust emission certification data obtained by Yamaha. Your actual mileage will vary depending on road conditions, how you ride and maintain your vehicle, accessories, cargo and operator/passenger weight.
** Wet weight includes the vehicle with all standard equipment and all fluids, including oil, coolant (as applicable) and a full tank of fuel. It does not include the weight of options or accessories. Wet weight is useful in making real-world comparisons with other models.


(R1M information below photos)































































































































































Yamaha YZF-R1M



R1M Features:

ENGINE:
The all-new 998cc in-line 4-cylinder, crossplane crankshaft engine features titanium fracture-split connecting rods, which are an industry first for a production motorcycle. The specific titanium alloy used to manufacture the new connecting rods is around 60% lighter than steel, and this major reduction in weight gives the new R1 engine a responsive and potent character at high rpm. This all-new engine delivers extremely high horsepower and a strong pulse of linear torque.

With an ultra-high 13.0:1 compression ratio, the all-new engine also features twin injectors on each cylinder, with a bi-directional spray in the lower injector where fuel is directed toward the back of the intake valves, boosting the number of droplets that go directly into the combustion chamber and at high rpms, the secondary injectors add a boost in fuel delivery maximizing combustion efficiency and engine performance.

Lightweight magnesium engine covers are used to further reduce weight while rocker-arm valve actuation allows for larger valve lift further boosting horsepower.

CHASSIS/SUSPENSION:
The R1M features a highly advanced Öhlins Electronic Racing Suspension. The Suspension Control Unit receives data from the Inertial Measurement Unit, which communicates vehicle speed, attitude, lean angle, acceleration and brake pressure, then adjusts the front and rear compression as well as rebound damping for optimum suspension performance. The system comes with two modes. “Automatic” mode continuously adjusts rebound and compression damping as you ride providing ideal damping force for the track or the street and can be fine tuned to the riders needs. The “manual” mode allows riders to fine tune to the settings they choose then holds these settings while riding.

All-new Aluminum Deltabox ® frame and magnesium subframe contribute to a light weight and compact chassis design. The aluminum frame is both strong and flexible, with rigid engine mounts, making the engine a stressed member of the frame for optimal rigidity balance and great cornering performance on the race track.

The wheelbase is 10mm shorter than the previous R1 adding to cornering performance, however the ratio of swing arm length to wheelbase is

40.5%, the same as the current R1 for excellent linear stability. Also featured is an aluminum 4.5 gallon fuel tank, weighing in at a full 3.5 pounds less than a comparable steel tank.

The track developed and tested racing ABS and Unified Braking System provide maximum braking performance. UBS inhibits unwanted rear end motion during braking by activating the rear brake when the front brake is applied, with force distribution based on the bike’s attitude and lean angle.

All-new Nissin 4-piston radial mounted front calipers ride on big 320mm rotors for excellent stopping power.

The 2015 R1M is equipped with a newly designed exhaust system manufactured mainly from titanium. Plus, a compact, midship muffler contributes towards the mass centralization that is a key feature on the R1M.

10-spoke cast magnesium wheels that reduce rotational mass by 1.9 pounds over the previous model reduces unsprung weight for quick direction changes and improved handling.

The R1M features a thin-film transistor LCD meter, with brilliant color, for precise monitoring of all vehicle systems, including front brake pressure and fore/aft G-force making it easier than ever to take the bike to its limits. It features a “street mode” and a “race mode” that focuses on information that’s more important on the track, such as YRC settings, a zoomed in view of the tachometer in the upper rpm range, a lap timer with best lap and last lap feature, gear position indicator and speed, just to name a few.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES:
Ultra-lightweight materials are used throughout like carbon fiber body components with unique R1M color and graphics and the exclusive “R1M” badge on top of the air box.

All-new dynamic “M1” inspired styling that creates a more compact profile with improved aerodynamics.

All-new LED headlights are both lightweight, and compact allowing for a more streamlined design and layout of the front face.

All-new LED front turn signals are integrated into the mirrors for improved aerodynamics.

ELECTRONICS PACKAGE:
The R1M features the most advanced MotoGP ® -inspired electronics package ever offered on any motorcycle: a full suite of inter-related technologies, enabling the rider to enjoy the fullest range of performance with great comfort, control, and ease of operation.

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is the first on production motorcycle featuring six axis of measurement: It consists of a gyro sensor that measures pitch, roll, and yaw, as well as an accelerometer, or G-sensor, that measures acceleration in the fore-aft, up-down, and right-left directions...all at a rate of 125 calculations per second. The IMU communicates with the Yamaha Ride Control (YRC) Yamaha’s most advanced electronics package ever offered on a production motorcycle. Includes Power Delivery Mode, Traction Control System, Slide Control System, Lift Control System, Launch Control System and Quick Shift System. All these systems are adjustable and can be saved within four presets.

Another feature exclusive to the all new R1M that takes electronic control to an all new level is the Yamaha-exclusive Communication Control Unit. The CCU allows riders to communicate with the vehicle via Wi-Fi through Yamaha’s exclusive Y-TRAC smartphone and tablet app.

The onboard system is comprised of the CCU and GPS antenna, running data can be recorded via a data logger, with course mapping and automatic lap timing managed by GPS. This data can then be wirelessly downloaded to the Android or Apple iOS app where it can be analyzed and even make setting changes to later upload to the R1M. This Yamaha exclusive Y-TRAC system gives an all new connection to the machine that has never been seen outside of the factory race pits further blurring that line between production superbike and MotoGP ® bike.

Power Delivery Mode (PWR), similar to the earlier “D-Mode” system, lets the rider choose from four settings of throttle-valve opening rate in relation to the degree of throttle-grip opening to best match their riding conditions.

Variable Traction Control System (TCS) with lean angle calculating the differential in front to rear wheel speed as well as the lean angle, it helps prevent rear wheel spin when exiting corners. As lean angle increases, so does the amount of control... with ten separate settings (off and 1-9) enabling the rider to dial in the exact level of control needed.

Slide Control System (SCS), the first of its kind on a production motorcycle comes directly from the YZR-M1. It works in tandem with the IMU, where, if a slide is detected while accelerating during hard leaning conditions, the ECU will step in and control engine power to reduce the slide. This too can be adjusted by the rider. Four settings (1-3 and off).

Lift Control System (LIF): IMU detects the front to rear pitch rate and the ECU controls engine power to reduce the front wheel lift during acceleration. Four settings (1-3 and off).

Launch Control System (LCS), limits engine rpms to 10,000 wide open throttle. It maintains optimum engine output in conjunction with input from the TCS and LIF systems to maximize acceleration from a standing start. Three settings (1-2 and off).

Quick Shift System (QSS) cuts engine output so riders can up-shift without using the clutch and closing the throttle, for quicker lap times, also with three variable settings (1-2 and off).

Assist and slipper clutch is used to give the rider more confident downshifts when entering corners aggressively.

The R1M uses YCC-T ® (Yamaha Chip Controlled Throttle), fly-by-wire technology providing optimum power delivery. YCC-I® is Yamaha Chip Controlled Intake which is a variable intake system that broadens the spread of power in both low and high rpm.


R1M Specs:

Model: YZFR1MF/C
Engine Type: 998cc, liquid-cooled inline 4 cylinder DOHC 16 valves
Bore x Stroke: 79.00 x 50.9mm
Compression Ratio: 13.0:1
Fuel Delivery: Fuel Injection with YCC-T and YCC-I
Ignition: TCI: Transistor Controlled Ignition
Transmission: 6-speed w/multi-plate slipper clutch
Final Drive: Chain
Suspension / Front: 43mm Öhlins electronic suspension w/ inverted fork; fully adjustable; 4.7-in travel
Suspension / Rear: Öhlins electronic suspension w/ single shock w/piggyback reservoir, 4-way adjustable; 4.7-in travel
Brakes / Front: Dual 320mm hydraulic disc; 4-piston caliper, UBS ABS
Brakes / Rear: Dual 320mm hydraulic disc; 4-piston caliper, UBS ABS
Tires / Front: 120/70ZR17M/C
Tires / Rear: 200/55ZR17M/C
L x W x H: 80.9 x 27.2 x 45.3 in
Seat Height: 33.9 in
Ground Clearance: 5.1 in
Wheelbase: 55.3 in
Rake (Caster Angle): 24°
Trail: 4.0 in
Fuel Capacity: 4.5 gal
Fuel Economy*: N/A
Wet Weight**: 443 lb
Color: Liquid Graphite; Rapid Red; Pearl White

* Fuel economy estimates are based on US EPA exhaust emission certification data obtained by Yamaha. Your actual mileage will vary depending on road conditions, how you ride and maintain your vehicle, accessories, cargo and operator/passenger weight.
** Wet weight includes the vehicle with all standard equipment and all fluids, including oil, coolant (as applicable) and a full tank of fuel. It does not include the weight of options or accessories. Wet weight is useful in making real-world comparisons with other models.









































Click here to visit our forums to discuss this story

Tags: 2015, new models, yamaha

In Our Forums


Headlines



Bikeland on TwitterBikeland on YouTubeBikeland news on RSS
Bikeland gear
Burnaby Kawasaki